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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative illness that is among the most common in the world. It is typified by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. Its aetiology is still unknown, however a few critical elements play a major role in its development. The most important risk factor for Parkinson’s disease development is age. 

Dr Richa Singh, Consultant Neurologist at Ruby Hall Clinic Pune says, “The probability of developing Parkinson’s disease (PD) increases with age, and most instances affect people 50 years of age and beyond. Research indicates that 1% of senior citizens who are 60 years of age and older have Parkinson’s disease (PD), and that number rises with age. Research on the exact mechanisms behind this association between ageing and greater susceptibility to the neuronal degeneration characteristic of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is continuing.”

Early Onset of Parkinson’s Disease

However, Dr Richa highlights, “Parkinson’s Disease is not limited to the elderly. Young-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the term for the small percentage of instances (about 1-2% of cases) in whom symptoms appear before the age of 40. In these circumstances, genetic predisposition becomes an important determinant, highlighting the interaction between genetic variables and the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Comprehending the genetic foundations of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is imperative in order to clarify its aetiology and develop focused treatment approaches.”

Risk Factors of Parkinson’s Disease

“PD risk is influenced by several environmental and lifestyle factors in addition to age and genetics. While their exact involvement needs to be further investigated, pesticide exposure, brain trauma, and some drugs have been highlighted as potential risk factors,” adds Dr Richa.

Parkinson’s Disease Treatment

“Numerous genetic mutations, including those in the genes SNCA, LRRK2, and PARKIN, have been linked to the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). These mutations cause major cellular malfunctions that ultimately result in neuronal degeneration. Significantly, the discovery of these genetic variables has aided in the development of possible therapeutic interventions as well as advancements in diagnosis, opening the door to patient-specific treatment plans that are based on their unique genetic profiles”, further adds Dr Richa.

“The complexity of Parkinson’s disease (PD) highlights the need for a multifaceted management strategy that includes both pharmaceutical and non-pharmacological treatments. While the primary goal of current treatments is to reduce symptoms, research is still being done to find disease-modifying medications that can stop or delay the progression of the condition.”

To sum up, the development of young-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD) highlights the important significance of genetic predisposition, even though rising age is still the predominant risk factor. Sustained investigations of the complex pathways that underlie Parkinson’s disease aetiology may yield new treatment approaches that lessen the severity of this crippling illness.



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